Mechanic Introduction
Game modes Map conditions with different rulesets regarding hero picking and other variables.
Custom Games Game modes created by community members, with its own set of rules and assets. Custom games are made through modding.
Heads-up display The in-game graphical interface, showing a hero`s portrait, abilities, items, stats, and more.
Minimap A small graphical representation of the game map, where heroes and other information can be seen. Scanning is a way to reveal the presence of enemies on the minimap.
Disjoint The act of dodging a projectile using an ability or item. Not all projectiles can be disjointed.
Denying The act of killing a friendly hero, creep or building with low health. Denying prevents enemy heroes from gaining gold and experience from the denied unit or building.
Creep control techniques Methods to manipulate creeps for the purpose of positioning, or spawning more creeps to kill later on.
Roles Play styles that heroes fulfill to serve a specific function for their team.
Ganking The strategy of ambushing and attacking isolated enemy heroes in order to secure an early game advantage.
Pushing The strategy of focusing on destroying buildings and pressuring the lanes.
Harassment The strategy of attacking opponents to intimidate them from farming effectively, especially during the early game.
Farming The act of accumulating gold by killing as many creeps as possible.
Jungling The act of farming in the jungle by killing neutral creeps, instead of farming in the lanes.
Initiating The act of starting a teamfight, usually by disabling opponents with powerful abilities first.


Mechanics Header.png

Mechanics are the inner workings of Dota 2. The following is a list of mechanics topics. Click on each topic to view how they are calculated, where they originate, as well as their complex interactions with other mechanics elements.


Unit mechanics

These properties are used by units in general, including heroes   Main   Mechanics   Attributes Table   Release Dates   Grid Layout     Heroes are the essential element of Dota 2, as the course of the match is dependent on their intervention. During dota2 , creeps Creeps are basic units in Dota 2. Every unit which is not a hero, building, ward or courier is considered a creep. Creeps can belong to either faction, be neutral, or be player-controlled units. Unlike dota2 , and summons This page is about in-game units. For cosmetic pets, see Summoned Unit. Summons are a type of units that are created with spells. Players do not encounter them, unless they play as, with or against dota2 . Heroes possess a number of unique mechanics that other units don`t.

Mechanic Introduction
Abilities Abilities are unique skills that heroes and creeps have access to on the battlefield. They range from simple passive effects, to devastating explosions of energy, to complex, terrain changing feats. All heroes have four or dota2 Skills possessed by units, to be used on the battlefield. All heroes have at least three basic abilities, and one ultimate ability. Hero abilities are acquired upon leveling up with experience. Most abilities need to be activated, while others are passive. Active abilities have a cooldown period between uses.
Attributes For a list of heroes sorted by attributes, see Table of hero attributes.   Attributes   Old Abilities     Attributes are the main statistics of all heroes that independently determine most scaling statistics. These dota2 Baseline stats that increase with each level. Strength increases health and health regeneration, Agility increases armor and attack speed, Intelligence increases mana, mana regeneration, and magical damage. All heroes are associated with one of three attributes, known as their Primary Attribute. Raising a hero`s Primary Attribute also raises their physical attack damage. Attributes can also be increased by items and abilities.
Talents   Main   Table of Gained Bonuses     The Talent Selection interface. Talents are traits unique to each hero. They are chosen every 5th level starting at level 10, offering a permanent choice between dota2 Bonuses that increase a hero`s stats and properties. Players can pick one of two talents at levels 10, 15, 20, and 25.
Experience   Main   Changelogs     “ Play I grow stronger! Click to listen— Storm Spirit ” Experience allows heroes to level up, which makes them stronger and allows them to learn new abilities. Experience is earned dota2 Points needed for heroes to level up. Experience is gained from killing creeps and enemy heroes. Maximum level is 25, after which experience no longer serves any purpose.
Spawning Heroes spawn at the fountain Fountain Building Level 1 Health 500 Health regeneration 0 Armor 0 Magic resistance 0% Attack damage 190‒199 Acquisition range 1200 Attack range 1200 Base attack time 0.15 Attack animation 0+0 Projectile speed 1400 Collision size dota2 , in their base. Dead heroes respawn after a set amount of time. Respawn time is determined by the hero`s level.
Health “ Play Life becomes death becomes new life. As it should be.  Click to listen— Treant Protector ” Health (also known as HP, which can be short for: health pool or health points) represents the life dota2 The amount of hit points a hero has. Health and health regeneration can be increased by strength, items, abilities, and talents.
Mana Play Out of mana! “ Play It s a new age of magic! Click to listen— Keeper of the Light ” Mana (also known as MP, which is short for mana points) represents the magic power of a dota2 The resource required to use most abilities. Mana and mana regeneration can be increased by intelligence, items, abilities, and talents.
Armor Armor is an attribute shared by all units. Armor is used to determine the amount of damage reduction (or amplification if an armor value is negative) a unit takes from physical damage sources. Higher armor dota2 Property that reduces incoming physical damage by a scaling amount per attack. Armor comes in three types, and can be increased or decreased by some items and abilities.
Damage block Damage Block is a passive ability that gives the wielding unit a chance to block some physical damage from an attack. Contents 1 Mechanics 2 Stacking 3 Sources of Damage Block 4 Version history 5 dota2 Property that reduces incoming damage by a fixed amount per attack. It is granted by some items and abilities.
Magic resistance Magic resistance is an attribute of heroes, similar to armor. Instead of reducing physical damage, it reduces magical damage. All heroes, except for Meepo and Visage, possess 25% magic resistance from their armor type. This dota2 Property that reduces incoming magical damage by a percentage. Most heroes start with 25% Magic Resistance. It can be further increased by some items and abilities.
Evasion Relationship Between Effective HPTechnology company % and Evasion Evasion is a passive ability that gives the unit a chance to dodge an incoming physical attack. When evaded, the attack gets completely nullified, acting as if it dota2 Property that grants a percentage chance to completely avoid a physical attack. True strike allows a hero to ignore evasion.
Movement speed DPS multiplier when chasing Minimum (pursuer MS / target MS) Ratio for Maximum Chase DPS Movement speed (sometimes abbreviated as move speed or MS) is the speed at which a unit can move. Movement speed dota2 The rate at which a unit moves. Movement speed can be increased and decreased by items and abilities.
Turn rate Turn rate is the speed at which a unit can turn. When moving to a location, a unit first turns to face that location, then begins walking. Similarly, when targeting another unit with an attack The rate at which a unit`s model turns. Most actions require the model to be facing towards the direction of the action about to be taken.
Collision size Collision size is a unit s internal size that cannot be passed through by other units. This allows units to block each other with their bodies. Most heroes have the same collision size, regardless of their The internal size of a unit, which is impassable and can block other units. Most heroes have the same collision size, regardless of their graphical model.
Aura Auras are passive abilities that grant a buff or debuff to units in an area of effect around the holder, or in some cases, over a short period at a targeted point or unit. By dota2 Passive buffs and debuffs that surround a hero or unit in a circular radius. Auras come from abilities and items, and cannot be dispelled   Dispel   Removable buffs   Removable debuffs     A dispel is the term used for a forced removal of status effects. Dispels usually come together with other mechanics and are rarely seen as dota2 .
Illusions Default buff iconPlay Spawn soundPlay Death sound “ Play A legion sprouts from one! Click to listen— Phantom Lancer ” Illusions (also commonly called illus) are imperfect, weaker copies of heroes, created by spells or items. They dota2 Clones of heroes that are generated by abilities, items, or runes. Illusions come in different types, and possess lesser properties of the original hero.

Attack mechanics

Mechanic Introduction
Damage types Damage is any means by which unit s current health can be reduced. Heroes, creeps, ancients, Roshan and fountains are all capable of dealing damage. Contents 1 Damage sources 1.1 Attack damage 1.2 Spell damage 2 There are three overall categories of damage. Physical damage is done by basic attacks, and some abilities. Magical damage is done by abilities and items. Pure damage is the rarest, and penetrates armor and magic resistance. HP Removal ignores all forms of damage manipulation, and is not technically considered a type of damage.
Attack damage Attack damage is the amount of damage a unit is dealing with an unmodified basic attack; the base values are different for every hero. The total attack damage of a unit is the sum of dota2 Damage done by basic attacks. This type of damage is always physical, but is split into four minor types that interact differently with armor types.
Spell damage   Spell damage   Spell damage sources     Spell damage is all damage which is not dealt by physical attacks. This includes all spells which deal magical, physical or pure damage. Even the damage dota2 Damage done by any source other than basic attacks. Spell damage can come in magical, physical, or pure damage types. It is amplified by the Intelligence attribute.
Damage manipulation There are several ways to affect the final value of a damage instance. Damage can be manipulated on both ends, from the dealing unit (outgoing damage) and the receiving unit (incoming damage). Armor and magic dota2 Calculations that affect the final value of a damage instance. Items and abilities can amplify, reduce, or negate final damage.
Damage over time Periodic damage done over intervals, usually in small amounts.
Attack speed The time it takes to perform an attack. Attack speed can be increased or decreased by items and abilities.
Attack animation The model animation that plays when a unit attacks. Damage is dealt at the attack point, followed by the attack backswing of the animation. Attack animations play faster or slower according to a unit`s attack speed.
Cast animation The model animation that plays when a unit uses an ability. The ability is used at the cast point, followed by the cast backswing of the animation. Each ability has its own unique cast animation. The speed of cast animations cannot be altered, and therefore cast speed stays the same throughout the match for each ability.
Channeling The model animation for certain abilities that require a unit to stand still in order to affect the ability over time.
Missile speed The speed at which the projectile from a ranged basic attack travels. Abilities have unique missile speeds for their projectiles.
Attack range The distance from which a unit can perform basic attacks. Most melee heroes have a range of 150, while ranged heroes can have a range of up to 700.

Attack modifiers

See more: Attack modifier

Additional effects can be added to basic attacks. Some of these effects stack with each other in several ways, while others do not stack at all.

Mechanic Introduction
Critical strike Modifier that increases damage from basic attacks by a percentage multiplier.
Cleave & Splash Modifiers that cause damage from basic attacks to spill past a single target to a larger area.
Bash Modifier that gives basic attacks to a chance to stun.
Lifesteal Modifier that causes attacks to regenerate a portion of their damage as health.
Mana break Modifier that causes attacks to drain mana from the target.
Active/Autocast Modifiers that are innate to abilities, and can be toggled on or off.
Unique attack modifiers Modifiers that do not stack with each other.

World mechanics

Mechanic Introduction
Game map The battlefield where Dota 2 matches takes place. Three Lanes are present on the map, and lead into each team`s base. In between the lanes are wooded areas known as the Jungle.
Buildings Structures that aid in the defense of each opposing side. The main building is the Ancient, which must be destroyed in order for a side to win. Buildings can be made temporarily invulnerable with Glyph of Fortification.
Shops Stores scattered across the map that sell items to heroes.
Gold Currency used to buy items, which increase a hero`s capabilities. Heroes gain a small amount of gold every second, and can earn more gold by killing creeps, enemy heroes, and buildings. Dead heroes can use gold to Buyback, allowing them to respawn instantly.
Items Objects that can be purchased on the game map. Items increase a hero`s properties, and grant them special abilities and effects. Smaller items combine into larger items, with the help of recipes. Some items can be disassembled. Most items cannot be shared with other players.
Courier A special unit owned by each team that holds and delivers items to players.
Creeps Units that automatically spawn on the map. They are killed for gold and experience. Lane creeps attack and push towards the opposing base. Neutral creeps reside in the jungle.
Summons Units that are created by heroes to aid them in combat.
Wards Units that provide vision, or some other utility.
Runes Special boosters that spawn on the map. Runes give extra gold and experience to heroes who pick them up, as well as a variety of power-up effects.
Vision A unit`s ability to see the map in real time, versus being covered by the fog of war. Most units have a radius of vision around them. Some units can turn invisible, and can only be detected by True Sight.
Time of day The cycle of night and day. Some heroes have abilities that function differently at night. Vision is also limited at night.
Trees Vegetation that serve as impassible obstacles on the game map. Trees can be cut down, and will regrow over time. Some items and abilities can interact with trees.
Pseudo-random distribution The chance an ability or item`s effect will occur, increasing every time the effect does not occur.
True random distribution The chance an ability or item`s effect will occur, calculated independently of previous instances.

Status effects

See more: Disable

Status effects are a variety of conditions that can afflict units. They are caused by abilities and items.

Mechanic Introduction
Stun Unit is unable to move or perform any actions. Shackle is the same as stun, but requires the attacking hero to channel the effect.
Root Unit is unable to move, but can perform some actions.
Hex Unit is transformed into a critter, and is unable to perform any actions except move at a slow pace.
Cyclone Unit is swept into the air, where it is invulnerable, but cannot move or perform any actions.
Hide/Banish Unit is temporarily removed from the game map, and cannot be damaged or affected by any other mechanics.
Blind Unit has a chance to miss basic attacks.
Silence Unit is disabled from using unit abilities, but can still use item abilities.
Mute Unit is disabled from using item abilities.
Break Unit`s passive abilities are disabled.
Disarm Unit cannot attack, but can still use abilities.
Slow Unit`s movement speed is reduced. Most slows end after a set time, while other slows gradually decrease over time.
Trap Unit`s movement is restricted by barriers, but can still perform actions.
Taunt Unit is compelled to attack a certain target, ignoring player input.
Forced movement Unit is compelled to move in a certain direction, ignoring player input.
Teleport/Blink Unit moves to a location instantaneously.
Invisibility Unit cannot be seen by normal vision, but can be detected by True Sight.
Phased Unit can move through other units, ignoring collision size.
Invulnerability Unit cannot be damaged by physical attacks.
Spell immunity Unit cannot be targeted or affected by most spells.
Ethereal Unit assumes a ghostly form, becoming immune to physical damage, but takes more magical damage. Ethereal units cannot attack.


See more: Dispel

Dispel refers to methods that remove buffs, debuffs, and status effects. This is an important topic to understanding the internal interactions of Dota 2.

Mechanic Introduction
Basic dispel A simple dispel granted by abilities and items.
Purge The same as a basic dispel, but with the addition of a slow debuff.
Spell immunity Some forms of spell immunity provide a basic dispel when activated.
Strong dispel A greater dispel that removes more status effects, granted by a handful of abilities.
Removable buffs A list of buffs that can be removed by various forms of dispel.
Removable debuffs A list of debuffs that can be removed by various forms of dispel.


See also: System Menu

This is a list of major functions that are not directly part of the game. It involves various featuresSpecial attraction regarding player input, Steam, and others.

Mechanic Introduction
Patches Updates to the game client, including changes to elements outside of mechanics, such as cosmetic items or the graphical interface.
Versions Updates to game mechanics, including new heroes, items, and balance adjustments. Versions are shipped with patches.
Trophies & Profile Levels In-game achievements that are awarded for accomplishing various feats.
Events Time-limited promotions that come with exclusive cosmetic items, trophies, and more. Events usually take place around big tournaments and holidays.
Spectating A function that allows players to watch live games, as well as replays of past games.


See more: Game Settings

Game settings allow users to change display, graphics, audio, and control settings.

Mechanic Introduction
Controls Settings for hotkeys, mouse cursor interactions, and the in-game chat wheel.
Launch Options Command lines that can be entered Steam`s settings to change the Dota 2 client.
Console commands List of commands that can be used through the in-game console.
Cheats List of official cheats that can be used in private lobbies, for the purpose of testing. Cheats cannot be used in matchmaking.


See more: Matchmaking

Matchmaking is the automated system that finds and matches players together, usually based on internal calculations of player skill. Casual and ranked matchmaking are both available.

Mechanic Introduction
Matchmaking Rating The value that determines a player`s skill level. Also known as MMR. Winning increases a player`s rating, while losing decreases it.
Leaderboards Regional ladder rankings for the top 200 players with the highest matchmaking rating.
Bots AI controlled heroes that players can choose to match with.
Priority Internal flag that determines who players are matched with. Players with a history of bad conduct are placed in low priority, and can only match with others in low priority.
Ban Punishments given out to players who violate rules or community norms. Communication bans are given out based on feedback from other players. Total game bans are given out to players who use third party programs to cheat.

Cosmetic items

See more: Cosmetic Items

Cosmetic items can be used to alter the appearance of heroes and various elements of the interface. They are purely cosmetic and do not affect game mechanics.

Mechanic Introduction
Item drop system Cosmetic items drop randomly after matches. Rare items drop less often.
Rarity Property of items that scale from Common to Arcana. Rarer items are generally harder to obtain, and contain more customizations.
Quality Property of items that are associated with the circumstances of their origin.
Armory The in-game interface where all cosmetic items are stored.
Treasures Boxes that can be opened to obtain random cosmetic items.
Gems Modifiers that can be socketed into some items to grant them a counter or custom effects.
Music Soundtracks that play depending on the events of the game. Numerous custom music packs exist.
Steam Market A community marketplace where cosmetic items can be bought and sold.
Trading The act of trading cosmetic items with a friend on Steam, with certain restrictions.
Gifting The act of sending cosmetic items to a friend as a gift, with certain restrictions.

Gameplay Mechanics

  • Buildings
    • Towers
    • Backdoor Protection
    • Barracks
    • Ancients
    • Fountain
    • Shrines
    • Pillars
    • Glyph
    • Scan

  • Vision
    • Ground Vision
    • Flying Vision

  • Trees

  • Unit Types
    • Hero
    • Creep
    • Ancient
    • Summoned
    • Ward

  • Random Number Generation
  • Pseudo Random Distribution

  • Skillshot

  • Collision Size
  • Pathfinding
  • Phase

  • True Sight

  • Runes
  • Powerup Runes
    • Double Damage Rune
    • Haste Rune
    • Illusion Rune
    • Regeneration Rune
    • Invisibility Rune
    • Arcane Rune
  • Bounty Runes

  • Lane Creeps
  • Neutral Creeps
  • Jungle
  • Stacking
  • Pulling

Hero Mechanics

  • Heroes
    • Abilities

  • Hero Attributes
    • Primary Attribute
    • Strength
    • Agility
    • Intelligence

  • Talent Tree
    • Talents

  • Aura
    • Positive Aura
    • Negative Aura

  • Experience
    • Denies

  • Gold
    • Reliable Gold
    • Unreliable Gold
    • Buyback
    • Respawn Time

  • Hit Points
    • Hit Point Regeneration
    • Base Hit Point Regeneration

  • Mana Points
    • Mana Point Regeneration
    • Base Mana Point Regeneration

  • Summons
    • Conversion
    • Wards
    • Clones

  • Magic Resistance
    • Magic Amplification
    • Magic Shield

  • Movement Speed
    • Haste

  • Turn Rate
  • Teleport
  • Blink

  • Illusions

Attack Mechanics

  • Standard Attack
    • Base Damage
    • Bonus Damage
    • Damage Spread

  • Attack Range
    • Melee
    • Ranged
  • Attack Speed
    • Base Attack Time
    • Attack Time
    • Cast Time

  • Cleave
  • Splash
  • Critical Strike

  • True Strike
    • Accuracy
    • Evasion

  • Damage Types
    • Physical
      • Basic Attack
      • Pierce Attack
      • Siege Attack
      • Hero Attack
    • Magical
    • Pure

  • Non-Damage Types
    • HP Cost
    • Negative Regeneration
    • Instant Kill
  • No-Trigger
  • No-Reflection

  • Cast Range
  • Missile Speed

  • Disjoint

  • Damage Over Time
  • Lifesteal
  • Unique Attack Modifier
    • Attack Modifier

  • Armor
    • Basic Armor
    • Fortified Armor
    • Hero Armor

  • Mana Burn
    • Mana Drain

  • Damage Resistance
    • Damage Absorption
    • Damage Immunity
  • Damage Amplification
  • Damage Reduction
  • Damage Block
  • Spell Amplification

Status Effects

  • Buffs
    • Healing
      • Resurrection
    • Invisibility
      • Deceit
    • Invulnerability
    • Spell Immunity

  • Disables
    • Blind
    • Cyclone
    • Disarm
    • Root
    • Ethereal
    • Hex
    • Banish
    • Silence
    • Mute
    • Break
    • Sleep
    • Trap
    • Taunt

  • Knockback
    • Push
    • Pull
    • Launch

  • Dispel
    • Strong Dispel
    • Purge

  • Slow
    • Maim
    • Decaying Slow
    • Turn Rate Slow

  • Stun
    • Mini-Stun
    • Shackle
    • Bash
    • Mini-Bash

Item Mechanics

  • Items
    • Consumables
    • Attributes
    • Armaments
    • Arcane
    • Common
    • Support
    • Caster
    • Weapons
    • Armor
    • Artifacts
    • Secret Shop
    • Roshan Drop
    • Other

  • Item Sharing
  • Disassemble

  • Shop
    • Home Shop
    • Side Shop
    • Secret Shop


  • Lanes
    • Mid Lane
    • Safe Lane
    • Off Lane
    • Trilane

  • Game Modes
    • Ranked Matchmaking
    • Unranked Matchmaking

  • Roles
    • Carry
    • Nuker
    • Initiator
    • Disabler
    • Durable
    • Escape
    • Support
    • Pusher
    • Jungler
  • Complexity

  • Farm Dependency
    • Position 1
    • Position 2
    • Position 3
    • Position 4
    • Position 5

  • Glossary

Game Client

  • Patches

  • HUD
  • Indicators
  • Dashboard
  • Settings

  • Console Commands
  • Cheats
  • Controls

  • Store